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How can a fetus be aborted?

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How can a fetus be aborted?

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Abortion is defined as the early termination of pregnancy, and the earlier the pregnancy, the more abortion options are available and the lower the risk of health problems. The first trimester is the safest time for an abortion.

Abortion methods

The method used for abortion depends on the duration and progress of the pregnancy, 

but it is recommended to perform an ultrasound before performing the abortion to make sure that the fetus is in the correct place (not outside the womb) and to make sure of the exact duration of pregnancy as well.

Abortion methods used in the first trimester of pregnancy

In the first trimester of pregnancy, surgical abortion or abortion using medications can be performed, but it is important to know that abortion using medications can only take place during nine weeks of pregnancy, and among the methods used for abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy are:

  • Methotrexate with misoprostol; This medication method is used for abortion only during seven weeks of pregnancy.
  • Mifepristone with misoprostol; This method can be used during the seven to nine weeks of pregnancy.
  • Manual Vacuum Aspiration, this method is used at an early age; Where it can be used three to twelve weeks after the last menstruation, this method needs local anesthesia only on the cervix and vagina; 
  • The doctor inserts a speculum through the vagina, then a thin tube is inserted into the uterus through the cervix, and a manual medical syringe is attached to suction tissues from the uterus; 
  • This leads to uterine contraction, and these contractions decrease when the tube is removed and pulled.
  • Aspiration, also called suction curettage, dilation, and curettage, and this surgical procedure is used to abort and terminate a pregnancy within sixteen weeks of the last menstrual period, in which an anesthetic is placed Topical placement of the cervix, 
  • then the cervix is ​​fixed using a surgical instrument consisting of two long handles and a clip at its end to expand it using rods of various sizes, and the rods can be placed several days before the operation, and when the required width of the cervix is ​​reached, a long-term plastic tube is inserted into the suction tube The uterus to withdraw and suction the fetus and placenta.

Abortion methods used in the second trimester of pregnancy

The following methods are used for abortion during the second trimester of pregnancy:

  • Dilation and Curettage, where the cervix is ​​fixed using forceps and a speculum is inserted into the cervix; The dilation is done in the first stage by inserting thin sticks or by using drugs to soften and expand the cervix,
  • then moving to the second stage; is scraping and scraping the lining and removing the components of the uterus using a curette, then suctioning any remaining materials inside the uterus using a plastic tube, and then taking a sample of tissue for laboratory examination.
  • Dilation and Evacuation; This surgical procedure is used to terminate and abort a pregnancy within sixteen weeks of pregnancy; Where a cervical expander is placed one day before the operation, and when the operation is performed, a local anesthetic is placed on the cervix, 
  • and fixed using a surgical instrument with two long handles containing a clip at the end, 
  • in addition to its further expansion using large conical rods, and a syringe is used before the procedure The process is to ensure the death of the fetus, then a long plastic tube is inserted to start removing the tissue, after which a scoop-like surgical tool called a curette is used to scrape the lining and remove the rest, and suction is used as a final step to make sure all parts are removed.
  • Induction Abortion. This surgical procedure is used rarely. Where a quantity of salt, water, urea, and potassium chloride is mixed and injected into the amniotic sac, 
  • in addition to the introduction of prostaglandin substances into the vagina. Intravenous injection of a drug containing oxytocin.

Abortion methods used in the last trimester of pregnancy

It is also called a late-term abortion. Where the term is given when the fetus can survive and live outside the womb; Most medical societies consider the earliest possible time for a fetus to be able to live outside the womb is after twenty-four weeks. The abortion procedure in the third trimester of pregnancy depends on the laws and regulations in force. Among the methods used for abortion in the last trimester of pregnancy are:

    Induction abortion.

    Dilation and Extraction; Where this procedure is used to terminate a pregnancy after twenty-one weeks of pregnancy, it is also called a partial-birth abortion; A cervical expander is used two days before the operation, and the fetus's water is supposed to come out during the third day and see the doctor at that time; Where the fetus is rotated and the feet, shoulder, and hands are pulled using forceps through the birth canal, then the components of the brain are removed using the tubular catheter after making a small incision at the bottom of the skull until the skull is folded, and the entire fetus is removed.

    miscarriage complications

    Among the most important risks and complications associated with abortion: 

    • Womb infection, which may occur in one in ten miscarriages, is usually treated with antibiotics.
    • the presence of remnants of pregnancy inside the uterus; This condition requires further treatment if it occurs, and it occurs in one in twenty miscarriages.
    • Excessive Bleeding may require a blood transfusion when it occurs in severe and acute cases and may occur in one in every thousand miscarriages.
    • Cervix damage may occur in one in 100 surgical abortions.
    • Damage to the womb (in English: Womb Damage), may occur in one out of every two hundred and fifty to a thousand surgical abortions, and it occurs at a rate of less than one per thousand medical abortions in the twelfth to the twenty-fourth week of pregnancy.

    The effect of abortion on fertility

    Abortion does not affect a woman's fertility and ability to become pregnant in the future; 

    In most cases, a woman can get pregnant again immediately after the abortion, so; It is important to start using contraceptives if you do not want to get pregnant again, 

    but inflammation of the uterus that may occur may slightly affect future fertility if it is not treated properly,

    as the infection may move to the fallopian tubes and ovaries; Which may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, 

    which may increase the risk of infertility and ectopic pregnancy; However, in most cases, 

    inflammation is treated in the early stages before it develops to this stage; As an antibiotic is usually given before the abortion to reduce the possibility of its occurrence, 

    and the frequency of miscarriage may slightly increase the chance of premature birth; That is, before the thirty-seventh week of a future pregnancy.