What are the causes of ectopic pregnancy?

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 What are the causes of ectopic pregnancy?

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ectopic pregnancy

The condition in which the fertilized egg does not implant in its proper place in the uterus is called an ectopic pregnancy or an ectopic pregnancy because in a healthy pregnancy the egg attaches and grows in the uterine cavity, unlike an ectopic pregnancy. The growth of an egg in the ovary, abdomen, cervix, or fallopian tubes, in most cases, the importance of early detection of an ectopic pregnancy lies in how dangerous it is for a woman, as the implant may rupture in the organ where the egg is located, causing internal bleeding.  The rate is estimated at one in 50 pregnancies,  This condition is associated with a woman who suffers from pelvic side cramps, menopause, and vaginal bleeding, in addition to feeling pain in the lower abdomen of the woman. 

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Causes of an ectopic pregnancy

Many causes and risk factors have been proven to be associated with the development of an ectopic pregnancy, and the following is an explanation of all of them: 

  • Tubal disease: Anatomical defects in the fallopian tubes increase the risk of developing a fetus in the fallopian tubes more than in other women, and the use of diethylstilbestrol by expectant mothers is one of the causes of structural defects in the fallopian tubes that women are born with. It is noteworthy that the drug has been discontinued by doctors for a long time.
  • Endometriosis: Endometriosis can sometimes lead to the formation of scar tissue and adhesions, which can prevent a fertilized egg from reaching the uterus, increasing the risk of an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Tubal ligation: Some women use tubal ligation, but it is important to note that one-third of women who become pregnant after the procedure have an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Sexual partnerships: Multiple sexual relationships are associated with an increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, which in turn can lead to an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Age: The chance of ectopic pregnancy increases with age, as women over the age of forty are more likely to have an ectopic pregnancy.
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  • Follow pregnancy management practices: Pregnancy is rare while using an IUD, but ectopic pregnancy is more likely if you become pregnant while using an IUD. 
  • Infertility and its treatment: Infertility increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy, and some treatments and techniques used to treat infertility, such as IVF, may increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. 
  • Smoking: Maternal smoking before pregnancy is classified as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. 
  • Previous exposure to an ectopic pregnancy: Women who have had an ectopic pregnancy are 10% more likely to have another ectopic pregnancy. 
  • Surgical procedures: The most common surgical procedures that increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy are fibroid removal and cesarean section. 
  • Infection and inflammation: Certain types of infection and inflammation are among the factors that increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy, most notably: 
  • Salpingitis (English: salpingitis).
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.

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Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

Diagnosing the presence of ectopic pregnancy by looking at the symptoms alone is difficult because many medical tests and procedures help confirm the diagnosis, most notably: 

  • Transvaginal ultrasound: The transvaginal ultrasound technique involves inserting a small column called a probe into the vagina. The reproductive system appears on a dedicated screen. This image allows doctors to detect the implantation of a fertilized egg in the fallopian tubes and diagnose an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Blood analysis: When an ectopic pregnancy is difficult to detect on an ultrasound, the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is tested. Changes in hormone levels appear to rise slowly compared to a normal pregnancy.
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  • Diagnosis by laparoscopy: In cases that are difficult to diagnose by other methods, a diagnostic test for ectopic pregnancy is performed using an endoscope, the woman is placed under general anesthesia, and a small incision is made in the abdomen, and an ectopic pregnancy is examined. Insert an endoscopic device to examine the uterus and tubes, guide the fallopian tubes, and probe the site of the pregnancy. It is important to note that detection of ectopic pregnancy during laparoscopic surgery involves the use of some surgical tools to remove the pregnancy; This is to avoid the need for additional surgery.

ectopic pregnancy treatment

The treatment plan for an ectopic pregnancy that does not rupture the fallopian tube includes several options, most notably: 

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Surgical treatment: It is used to correct damage to the fallopian tubes, or remove them completely during laparoscopy, along with tissues containing pregnancy.

Medications: This involves injecting methotrexate into a muscle or directly into the fallopian tubes, which stops cell growth and helps dissolve existing cells.

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